The disaster selected for the paper is a chemical plant fire explosions. I reside in an area that is reported to have quite a few chemical plants. In terms of human-made disaster prevention, the nurse should be aware of high-risk targets and current vulnerabilities and what can be done to eliminate or mitigate the vulnerability (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, p.512). Preventing, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from disasters and emergencies are the nurse roles for emergency disasters. Clinical judgment and decision-making skills Public nurses’ skills are necessary to provide temporary housing, with basic health needs such as water and resources, for people who must evacuate their homes and provides a safe place to eat, sleep.
Age specifics are taken into consideration because of vulnerability and care need for the older adult population and children. Developing and testing systems for childcare and elder-care during public health emergencies could reduce the burden of competing responsibilities for nurses (O'Boyle, Robertson, & Secor-Turner, 2006). Children require special protection, especially nursing babies, infants and under-fives (ODPEM, 1989). Several nurses skilled to practice safely and competent are necessary for patient care in the event of a disaster in the community. The nurses must have knowledge of the environmental factors and the risk they put to themselves and other during the disaster.
The public health nurse’s knowledge of the geographical locations of medical facilities and clinic to transport patients seriously injured needing care are important to all persons involve in the disaster. Nurses need awareness of the surrounding medical facilities and services provided in their area, including alternate care sites and medical shelters (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012). The public nurses are educated, trained and skilled to respond quickly to aid in the disaster. Nurses have unique skills for all aspects of disaster to include assessment, priority setting, collaboration, and addressing of both preventive and acute care needs (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, p.511).
The nurses provide education and emotional support to the community. It is the role of the public health nurse to communicate with all healthcare professionals such as physician, other nurses, emergency medical team, the emergency coordinator, and fire department personnel actively participating in the emergency disaster. Communication with health care participants will assist them in rapidly establishing priorities and necessary actions during the emergency disaster. Communication and collaboration among other health care professionals is critical for delivering safe effective patient care all areas of care.
The nurses prepared at the Baccalaureate level must have knowledge of laws and ethics when making clinical judgments, and decision making. Nurses incorporate critical thinking, research and evidence base practice, informatics, cultural sensitivity and awareness in their practice when communicating information to other health care professional. Nurses prepared at the Baccalaureate level are educated to use respectful communication and collaboration to aid in care coordination, delegation, and conflict resolution in any situation when caring for patients and individual in the community.
Developing partnerships between public and private health-care, emergency management, and law enforcement entities, while using current technology to promote timely disease identification and reporting, can improve the daily capacity of a community to respond to illness and disease regardless of magnitude (CDC, 2013). Nursing Strategies
There are strategies nurses can use in emergency disaster before it takes place. Work with the community providing education and teaching to identify hazards that could affect their local area. Use communication techniques holding public meetings and events for the community geared towards improving the public's understanding of a disaster and how to address disasters that may arise. The health and safety of the community following a disaster of any kind, therefore, depends on the ability of its residents to be “disaster ready.” (Adams, L., Canclini., S., 2008).
Provide clear in-depth information about the chemicals hazards and the importance of an organized response to the emergency of a chemical plant explosion. Encourage colleagues, by increasing awareness that disaster do happen in our communities. provide knowledgeable information about disasters. Set up programs with communities and facilities practicing drills and communication techniques. Drills enhance confidence in systems, individuals, procedures, and equipment (O'Boyle, Robertson, & Secor-Turner, 2006). Nursing leadership for prevention, preparedness and recovery is critical to ensure a multi-disciplinary, coordinated and evidence-based response for chemical plant disaster.
Although public health nurses can function in many capacities, they are most likely to be deployed to the “operations section” because they bring leadership capacity, broad understanding of community systems, nursing knowledge, skills, and abilities (ASTDN 2007). During a public health emergency, occupational health nurses can be instrumentals in facilitating schedules and assignments that limit worker exposure to physically and psychologically over-whelming events (O'Boyle, Robertson, & Secor-Turner, 2006). Minimize errors owing to the absence of communication amongst health professionals.
Accurate communication can reduce accidents and fatalities, stress and emotional conflict between health care professionals and the community population. To summarize this paper in short. Public health nurses’ roles are broad. The focus for nurses in the communities is to prevent diseases, provide teaching and education. The public health nurse’s experience and skills in the event of an emergency disaster promotes a positive outcome.