Are there significant relationships between Effects of Computer Games and the Level of Performance of Criminology Students? Theoretical Theory Social Responsibility Theory Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a big responsibility to society at large. This responsibility can be “negative”, meaning there is exemption from blame or liability, or it can be “positive”, meaning there is a responsibility to act beneficently.
This theory is a good basis of the study because students not only spending excessive time playing computer games but they need to consider also their responsibility as a students and their satisfaction with their co-students living in the real world. Critical Theory Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. “Critical Theory” in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School.
According to these theorists, a “critical” theory may be distinguished from a “traditional” theory according to a specific practical purpose: a theory is critical to the extent that it seeks human emancipation, “to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them” (Horkheimer 1982, 244). Because such theories aim to explain and transform all the circumstances that enslave human beings, many “critical theories” in the broader sense have been developed.
They have emerged in connection with the many social movements that identify varied dimensions of the domination of human beings in modern societies. In both the broad and the narrow senses, however, a critical theory provides the descriptive and normative bases for social inquiry aimed at decreasing domination and increasing freedom in all their forms. Based on the concept of the research, this theory can relate to the study through applying a critical analysis to know the effects of computer games in the criminology students of MinSCAT Bongabong Campus. Conceptual Framework Fig. 1:
Statement of the Hypothesis The Effects of Computer Games has no significant relationship to its level of performance of criminology students in social interaction, psychological behavior, and problem solving. Significance of the Study To the Students, this study aims to provide information with regards to the effects of computer gaming. To the Professor, for them to have deeper understanding of the effects of computer gaming. To the Readers, awareness of the effects of computer gaming. And also the future researcher who will do research on the related topic will have a background on this study.
Scope and Limitations This is limited to the students of MINSCAT in Bongabong. This paper was conducted during the year 2012 and the information’s gathered were limited to Bongabong Oriental Mindoro. This study focuses on the Effects of Computer Games including Lack of socialization, Personality Changes, and Hyperactive of Learning’s disorder that will be measured to its level of performance of criminology students through social interaction, psychological behavior, and problem solving. Chapter II The Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter reviews the work of research workers on problems closely related to the present study. Foreign Literature Lepper, M. R. & Gurtner, J (2000), states that prolonged and excessive use of these games can cause, mainly upon children, a number of physical and psychological problems which may include obsessive, addictive behavior, dehumanization of the player, desensitizing of feelings, personality changes, hyperactivity learning disorders, premature maturing of children, psychomotor disorders, health problems (due to lack of exercise & tendonitis), Development of anti-social behavior and loss of free thinking & will.
Anderson and Bushman (2001), found that across 54 independent tests of the relation between video game violence and aggression, involving 4262 participants, there appear to be five consistent results of playing games with violent contents. Playing violent games increase aggressive behaviors’, increases aggressive cognitions, increases aggressive emotions, increases physiological arousal, and decreases pro-social behaviours. Since most electronic games are violent, children below legal ages are emotionally disturbed and caused several changes on their behavior.
Austin, Pinkleton & Fujioka (2000), quoted that “parental meditation is correlated with better academic performance. And has been shown to increase beliefs in social norms, and to decrease fear. ” This refers to the parental consent of the player astheyplayaviolent-orientedgame. Gentile & Walsh (2002), wherein 55% of parents said that “always” or “often” should parents put limits on the amount of the time their children may play computer and video games, and 40% said they “always” or “often” check the video game rating before allowing their children to buy or rent computer or video games.
Even through these numbers are not particularly high, they may overestimate the amount of parental monitoring of children’s video game play. Foreign Study From the time computer games made their way into family homes, parents have wondered if violent video games may negatively affect children and teenagers. Today, parents still worry about the effects of violent computer games and of course it also remains a popular topic for the media.
However, with a growing number of children and teens spending excessive time playing computer games, perhaps parents should be more worried about teenagers addicted to computer games than the effects of violentvideogames. An examination of the literature reveals that those who study video game addiction sometimes disagree on the proportion of children and teenagers addicted to computer games. However, the majority of studies suggest that approximately 5 to 10% of youth who play computer games become addicted.
Compared to other psychological difficulties (such as depression and anxiety), teenage computer game addiction is obviously a relatively new problem faced by families. As such, parents may lack accurate and/or helpful information on the signs of computer game addiction, the risk factors for video game addiction, and strategies for helping teenagers addicted to computer games after the problem develops. As more therapists work with teenagers addicted to computer ames and more researchers study the problem, they are becoming better at detecting the signs of addiction, testing for video game addiction, and offering help to parents with teenagers addicted to computer games. Still, there is much confusion about exactly what computer game addiction is and how parents can help a teenager who seems far more interested in playing in a virtual world than living in the real world. Local Literature According to Josh Kearney, Online game addiction is caused by the constant updates and the never ending game play; this is solved by limiting online game downloads to one at a time.
The problem with online game addiction is that it is distracting children and young adults from their needs. Online gaming distracts people from food, sleep, and schoolwork. Although certain people are able to control themselves, there are people who can’t. These people will play for hours on end, numbing them mind to the point where they can only think about game play. The cause of this is the fact that a person go on playing forever. To add onto this there are constant updates that once the hype a one dies down; a new one is introduced to build anticipation.
Joshua Smyth, associate professor of psychology in The College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University, recently conducted a randomized trial study of college students contrasting the effects of playing online socially interconnected video games with more traditional single-player or arcade-style games. Smyth’s research found that online, socially integrated multiplayer games create greater negative consequences (decreased health, well-being, sleep, socialization and academic work). This proves my point that although these games can be fun, they can also be very dangerous.
There, although, is a solution to this. As to most problems there is a solution. The solution to this problem is to limit the amount of games one person can place on a computer. This would be done simply by analyzing the key components of an online MMORPG. By doing this you can train computers to detect these qualities. After doing so, it would be possible to make the computer limit how many of these games are downloaded. There are also certain problems with this. http://www. papercamp. com Local Studies
Based on the previous research, the computer has also disadvantages aside from the fact that it provides the students information’s and other features. In that research they conclude many students spent more time playing rather than researching and doing other academic works. This is result to computer addiction. From these students, huge percentage of them is male. This shows that male students are more prone to be affected by computer disadvantages. The research goal is to inform the students about what computer can really do to them, how can it affects them and what it is that affects them.
The researchers proved that the research made is really true and precise because they are also once addicted in using these so called computers (Justin Vista, Hienson Tan and Bryan Yaranon, 2009). Based on the related literature and studies stated in this research, all are significant because it serves as guidelines; gain more knowledge and additional information on how to distinguish the effects of computer games in the performance of criminology students of MINSCAT in Bongabong. Chapter III Research Methodology This chapter presents the research methodology that will be used and guide by the researcher to utilize in conducting this study.
To find out the Level of performance of criminology students. Research Design The researcher will use correlation method of research to determine the difference between the perceptions of the respondents and the relation of the variables. Descriptive correlation Method of Research is the process of descriptive research that goes beyond more gathering and tabulation of data. It involves an element of interpretation of the meaning of the significant relationship described. Respondents of the Study The respondents of the study are the students of criminology students of MINSCAT in Bongabong.
MINSCAT have total population of criminology students of 205. Sample respondents will be computed on the Slovin’s Formula. (See Appendix __ for the List of Respondents) Formula: N= __N__ 1+Ne2 Where: n= Sample size N= Population size e= Percentage Research Instrument The study will use questionnaire by the researcher in gathering data and employed methods like interview, browsing in the internet and collecting data and information in the books and newspaper. Data Gathering Tools A set of procedures guided the researchers in gathering all pertinent data that will be needed in this research.
First, a letter of request noted by the research adviser was sent to the Dean’s Office of MiNSCAT in Bongabong namely Edna G. Piol for permission to distribute the questionnaire. Second, the formal administrative of the questionnaires comprised all the directions in answering the questionnaire will be properly explained. Finally, the data will be sorted, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted using the most applicable technique in research. Scaling and Quantification A five point numerical with five (5) as the highest and one (1) as the lowest was used.
Each numerical scale had the corresponding statistical limits and verbal description presented in table 2 below. Table 2 Scaling and Quantification Numerical Scale Statistical Limits Verbal Description 5 4. 50-5. 00 Everyday 4 3. 50-4. 49 Always 3 2. 50-3. 49 Often 2 1. 50-2. 49 Sometimes 1 1. 00-1. 49 Not at all Table 3 Reliability of Questionnaire To assure that all item are reliable, a test and re-test method will be use by researchers. TEST AND RETEST RESULT INDEPENDENT VARIABLESRELIABILITYDESCRIPTION Lack of Socialization0. 8454170Reliable Personal Changes0. 9827526Reliable
Hyperactivity learning Disorder0. 8460318Reliable DEPENDENT VARIABLES Social Interaction0. 7231594Reliable Psychological / emotional awareness0. 6673800Reliable Problem Solving/ written exams0. 6676692Reliable Level of Significance=5%df=8Critical r-value=0. 632 The computed r-values exceed the critical r-value 0. 632 with 8 as the degree of freedom at 5% level of significance, therefore the questionnaire is reliable. Ten respondents for post-test and another ten respondents for pre-test other than 25 respondents were requested to answer the same set of questionnaire.
Responses were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted using the Pearson’s Movement Correlation. CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This Chapter presents the results of the research along with analysis, interpretation based on the statement of the problem. Table 4 Mean Perception of the respondents on the Effect of Computer Gaming in terms of Lack of Socialization PRODUCTSMEANRANKVerbal Description 1. I cannot socialize with other students. 3. 724OFTEN 2. I don’t have interest with other people. 3. 842OFTEN 3. I cannot established good relationship with my classmate. . 803OFTEN 4. I am not open with my parent’s parental guidance. 4. 24 1OFTEN MEAN3. 90OFTEN Table ¬¬4: Shows the overall mean perception of the respondents to the effects of computer gaming in terms of Lack of Socialization. This table shows items 1-5 with the verbal description of often as the first rank, I am not open with my parent’s parental guidance. Second, I don’t have interest with other people. Third, I cannot establish good relationship with my classmate. And lastly, I cannot socialize with other students. The overall mean calculated is 3. 90 which are described as often.
This means that computer gaming really affects the relationship of the teenage to the people surrounds them particularly to their parents that may lead to lack of parental guidance. Table 5 Mean Perception of the respondents on the Effect of Computer Gaming in terms of Personality Changes PRODUCTSMEANRANKVerbal Description 1. Moody3. 042SELDOM 2. Childish3. 881OFTEN 3. Health Awareness2. 84SELDOM 4. Physical Awareness2. 843SELDOM MEAN3. 14SELDOM Table ¬¬4: Shows the overall mean perception of the respondents to the effects of computer gaming in terms of Personality changes.
This table shows items 1- 4 with the verbal description of seldom as the first rank, Childish. Second, Moody. Third, Physical Awareness. And lastly, Health Awareness. The overall mean calculated is 3. 14 which are described as seldom. This means that computer gaming affects the respondents in terms of physical, mental and emotional such as changes in mood and lack of awareness. Table 6 Mean Perception of the respondents on the Effect of Computer Gaming in terms of Hyperactivity Learning Disorder PRODUCTSMEANRANKVerbal Description 1. Addictive in computer games. . 361OFTEN 2. Obsessive in computer games. 2. 924SELDOM 3. Lack of thinking. 4. 082OFTEN 4. Lack of learning. 3. 883OFTEN MEAN3. 81OFTEN Table ¬¬4: Shows the overall mean perception of the respondents to the effects of computer gaming in terms of Hyperactivity Learning Disorder. This table shows items 1- 4 with the verbal description of seldom and often as the first rank, Addictive in computer games. Second, Lack of thinking. Third, Lack of learning. And lastly, Obsessive in computer games. The overall mean calculated is 3. 81 which are described as Often.
This means that computer gaming affects the behavior of the respondents, like addictive and also they tend to have a lack of continuous learning’s. Table 7 Mean Perception of the respondents on the Level of Performance of criminology students in terms of social interaction. PRODUCTSMEANRANKVerbal Description 1. I did not attend school gathering. 3. 873OFTEN 2. I am not active in school activity. 2. 694SELDOM 3. I cannot communicate professionally with my professor and classmates. 4. 451OFTEN 4. I am not approachable with my co-students. 3. 882OFTEN MEAN3. 72OFTEN
Table ¬¬4: Shows the overall mean perception of the respondents to the effects of computer gaming in terms of Social Interaction. This table shows items 1- 4 with the verbal description of seldom and often as the first rank, I cannot communicate professionally with my professor and classmates. Second, I am not approachable with my co-students. Third, I did not attend school gathering. And lastly, I am not active in school activity. The overall mean calculated is 3. 72 which are described as Often. This means that the level of performance of the criminology student of MBC has a very non-satisfactorily performance in Social Interaction.
Table 8 Mean Perception of the respondents on the Level of Performance of criminology students in terms of Psychological/ Emotional Awareness. PRODUCTSMEANRANKVerbal Description 1. I am not aware of the happiness around me. 2. 134RARELY 2. I don’t have interests on my study. 4. 321OFTEN 3. I neglect myself especially my hygiene. 3. 922OFTEN 4. I did not focus on my academic activities3. 683OFTEN MEAN3. 51OFTEN Table ¬¬4: Shows the overall mean perception of the respondents to the effects of computer gaming in terms of Psychological/ Emotional Awareness.
This table shows items 1- 4 with the verbal description of rarely and often as the first rank, I don’t have interests on my study. Second, I neglect myself especially my hygiene. Third, I did not focus on my academic activities. And lastly, I am not aware of the happiness around me. The overall mean calculated is 3. 51 which are described as Often. This means that the level of performance of the criminology student of MBC has a very non-satisfactorily performance in Psychological/ Emotional Awareness. Table 9 Mean Perception of the respondents on the Level of Performance of criminology students in terms of Problem Solving/ Written Exams.
PRODUCTSMEANRANKVerbal Description 1. I cannot solve academic problem easily. 3. 162RARELY 2. I cannot do multitasking activity. 2. 924OFTEN 3. I cannot handle situation properly. 3. 083SELDOM 4. I am not quick in solving and I am inefficient. 3. 241SELDOM MEAN3. 10SELDOM Table ¬¬4: Shows the overall mean perception of the respondents to the effects of computer gaming in terms of PROBLEM Solving/ Written Exams. This table shows items 1- 4 with the verbal description of rarely, seldom and often as the first rank, I am not quick in solving and I am unefficient.
Second, I cannot solve academic problem easily. Third, I cannot handle situation properly. And lastly, I cannot do multitasking activity. The overall mean calculated is 3. 10 which are described as Seldom. This means that the level of performance of the criminology student of MBC has a non-satisfactorily performance in their academic. Summary Table of r and r2 the Effects of Computer Gaming in the Criminology Students of MBC IV Effects of Computer GamingDV Level of Performance of Criminology Students of MBC Social InteractionPsychological/ Emotional AwarenessProblem Solving/ Written Exams rrr
Lack of Socialization. 03-. 96. 87 Personality Changes. 32. 38. 87 Hyperactivity Learning Disorder. 52-. 84. 77 Critical r-value= . 195df=25significant level of 5% This table presents the r-values of the effects of computer gaming in the students of MBC through level of performance. Since the majority of computed r-value exceeded the critical r-value of . 195 with 25 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected which means that there is a significant relationship between the effects of computer gaming and the level of performance of criminology of MBC.
It reveals that all the dependent and independent variables are significantly correlated with each other. Through calculations performed, the researchers arrived at the ff. interpretations: The researchers interpreted that Lack of Socialization towards Social interaction has a very small positive correlation; high negative correlation towards Psychological/ Emotional Awareness; and very high positive correlation.
In terms of Personality Changes, it has a very small positive correlation towards social interaction; moderately small positive correlation towards Psychological/ Emotional Awareness; and very high positive correlation towards problem solving/ written exams. In terms of Hyperactivity Learning Disorder, it has high positive correlation towards Social Interaction; high negative correlation towards Psychological/ Emotional Awareness; and high positive correlation towards Problem Solving/ Written Exams.