Methods that are meant to reduce or lessen the possibility of the fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon might be more particularly be called contraception. Contraception is different from abortion in that contraception prevents fertilization whereas abortion ends an already recognized pregnancy. Procedures of birth control that might prevent the implantation of an embryo if fertilization takes place are medically considered to be contraception but typified by several adversaries as abortifacients. Riddle (1999) said that oral contraceptive pill is considered to be the most popular kind of birth control.
There are various brands of the pill and they come in packs of 21 or 28 pills. One pill is taken every day. The first 21 pills have a combination of synthetic estrogen and progesterone hormones. The oral contraceptive pill stops ovulation, stopping the ovaries from releasing eggs. Moreover, the pill likewise thickens cervical mucus, making it harder for sperm to enter the uterus. Then, the hormones in the pill prevent fertilization. The pill is 92-99. 7% effective as birth control. In addition, it does not protect against reproductive tract infections, including HIV/AIDS.
Meanwhile, Riddle (1999) also maintained that condoms are called barrier methods of birth control because they put up a block, or barrier, which keeps the sperm from reaching the egg. Only latex or polyurethane (because some people are allergic to latex) condoms are proven to help protect against STDs, including HIV. HIV/AIDS Greener (2002) asserted that human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is considered as a retrovirus, which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans wherein the immune system starts to fail causing life-threatening opportunistic infections.
Infection with HIV happens by means of the transfer of semen, vaginal fluid, blood, Cowper's fluid or breast milk. Within these body fluids HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. The three primary routes of transmission are unprotected sexual intercourse, contaminated needles and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth or by way of breast milk. Screening of blood products for HIV in the developed world has largely get rid of transmission by means of infected blood products or blood transfusions.
HIV has been discovered at low concentrations in the urine, tears, and saliva of infected humans; however, the risk of transmission by these secretions is insignificant. At present, there is no vaccine or cure for HIV or AIDS. The only recognized means of prevention is evading exposure to the virus. Nevertheless, an antiretroviral treatment, known as post-exposure prophylaxis is said to reduce or lessen the risk of infection if started instantly after exposure. Recent treatment for HIV infection includes highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.
This has been extremely beneficial to numerous HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996, when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available. Present HAART options are combinations (or "cocktails") consisting of at least three drugs belonging to at least two types, or "classes," of anti-retroviral agents. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), HIV infection is now pandemic. In fact as of January 2006, UNAIDS and the World Health Organization (WHO) approximate that AIDS has killed over 25 million individuals ever since it was first identified on December 1, 1981.
This makes the disease one of the most destructive pandemics in recorded history. In fact, in the year 2005, AIDS claimed a projected 2. 4 to 3. 3 million lives of which over 570,000 were children. References Greener, R. (2002). “AIDS and macroeconomic impact”, S, Forsyth (ed. ): State of The Art: AIDS and Economics, IAEN, 49-55. Kippley, John, Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning, 4th addition, Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League, 108-111,148.